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高三高考阅读理解词义猜测题解题技巧

2006年2月13日 来源:网友供稿 作者:不详 字体:[ ]


作者:籍万杰 王金龙

近几年的高考阅读理解题越来越重视对考生猜词悟义能力的考查,一般有二至三个小题是直接考查词义猜测的。这主要考查考生根据上下文推测生词短语的能力,突出考查语境的分析和把握能力。本文结合高考试题谈一谈如何猜测词的意思。


一、根据上下文情景进行猜测


猜测任何词义都离不开上下文的语境,所以可借助上下文语境对需要猜测的词或短语进行合乎逻辑的推测。


1. (2004年全国卷I,B篇) 62. The underlined word \"Change\" in the second paragraph means _______.


A. Idea B. Decision C. Cups D. Coins


[原文] So she made it easy, placing cups in rooms where students could leave their spare coins, and handing out cups to first-year students to keep in their rooms. Her \"Change for Change\" effort has collected $ 40,000 for charities(慈善机构) , which were decided upon by students.


[解析]根据上文她把杯子放在学生宿舍里收集硬币,以及下文中谈到已经为慈善机构募集到了$ 40,000可知,Change应是Coins(硬币)。答案为D。


二、 根据上下文的指代关系进行猜测


英语中代词使用得比较频繁,文章中的代词one, it, that, he, him 或them等可以指上文提到的人或事物。有时代词与指代的对象相隔较远,要认真查找;有时需要对前面提到的内容进行总结,才能得出代词所指代的事。


2. (2004年全国卷III,C篇) 65. The underlined word \"one\" in the 3rd paragraph refers to ________.


A. the President B. the director


C. an actor D. a look-alike


[原文] The president has started using look-alikes during some public appearances. Dave is offered a chance to \"serve his country\" by becoming one.


[解析]根据前文总统开始在公共场合使用替身(look-alikes),后来Dave有机会成为了其中的一员可以猜测出one应该是a look-alike。答案为D。


三、根据同义关系进行猜测


当词或短语之间有并列连词and 或or时,其连接的两项内容在含义上是接近的或递进的,由此确定同等关系中的某个生词所属的义域,由此可推知其大致意思。


3. (2004年重庆卷,C篇) 66. The underlined word \"conflict\" in the second letter means ________.


A. dependent life B. fierce fight


C. bad manners D. painful feeling


[原文] And if you\'ve gathered your friends around you to rebuild a happy family atmosphere(气氛), you may fear that saying no will bring back the kind of conflict you grew up with-or destroy the nice atmosphere you now enjoy.


[解析] 由破折号后的or可知,前后两句的意思相近,再结合两封信的内容可知,她不想失去或破坏这个友好氛围,否则就又让她回到以前的\"冲突\"中。答案为B。


四、根据同位关系进行猜测


阅读中出现的难词有时后面紧跟一个同位语,对其进行解释,这时可利用同位关系对前面或后面的词义或句意进行猜测。


4. (2004年上海卷,C篇) 82. The word \"favouritism\" in paragraph 3 is used to describe the phenomenon that ________.


A. bright children also need certificates to get satisfying jobs


B. children from well-respected schools tend to have good jobs


C. poor children with certificates are favoured in job markets


D. children attending ordinary schools achieve great success


[原文] Without examinations, employers will look for employees from the highly respected schools and from families known to them-a form of favouritism will replace equality.


[解析] 破折号后的句子是对前面进行解释说明的,二者是同位关系,因此,要猜测favouritism的意思,可从前面句子的意思入手。答案为B。

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